on this date – August 20, 2017

On this date:

In 1833, Benjamin Harrison, 23rd president of the United States, was born in North Bend, Ohio.

In 1866, more than a year after the end of fighting in the Civil War, President Andrew Johnson issued Proclamation 157, which declared that “peace, order, tranquillity, and civil authority now exist in and throughout the whole of the United States of America.

In 1882, Tchaikovsky’s “1812 Overture” had its premiere in Moscow.

In 1910, a series of forest fires swept through parts of Idaho, Montana and Washington, killing at least 85 people and burning some 3 million acres.

In 1914, German forces oc’cup’ied Brussels, Belgium, during World War I.

In 1940, during World War II, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill paid tribute to the Royal Air Force before the House of Commons, saying, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few. Exiled Communist revolutionary Leon Trotsky was assassinated in Coyoacan, Mexico by Ramon Mercader. (Trotsky died the next day.)

In 1953, the Soviet Union publicly acknowledged it had tested a hydrogen bomb.

In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act, a nearly $1 billion anti-poverty measure.

In 1968, the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact nations began invading Czechoslovakia to crush the “Prague Spring” liberalization drive.

In 1972, the Wattstax concert took place at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.

In 1989, entertainment executive Jose Menendez and his wife, Kitty, were shot to death in their Beverly Hills mansion by their sons, Lyle and Erik. Fifty-one people died when a pleasure boat sank in the River Thames (tehmz) in London after colliding with a dredger.

In 1992, shortly after midnight, the Republican National Convention in Houston nominated President George H.W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle for second terms in office.

Ten years ago: Tens of thousands of tourists fled the beaches of the Mayan Riviera as Hurricane Dean roared toward Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. A smoking China Airlines Boeing 737-800 exploded in a fireball at an airport gate in Okinawa seconds after all 157 passengers and eight crew members had safely evacuated. Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama expressed irritation with the “Obama Girl” web video starring actress Amber Lee Ettinger, telling The Associated Press it had upset his young daughters. Hotel magnate Leona Helmsley died in Greenwich, Connecticut, at age 87.

Five years ago: In a historic change at one of the world’s most exclusive golf clubs, Augusta National invited former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and South Carolina financier Darla Moore to become the first female members; both accepted. Two college friends, Elizabeth Nass and Rose Mayr, were killed when a CSX train derailed on a rail bridge in Ellicott City, Maryland, burying the young women in coal. Comedian Phyllis Diller, 95, died at her Los Angeles home.

One year ago: Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump told a rally in Fredericksburg, Virginia that his party had to do a better job of appealing to African-American voters and that he wanted the GOP to become their political home as it was in the era of Abraham Lincoln. At the Rio Games, the U.S. women’s basketball team won a sixth consecutive Olympic gold medal in dominant fashion, routing Spain 101-72. Allyson Felix and LaShawn Merritt anchored the 4×400 relay teams to victory. Caster Semenya of South Africa won her first Olympic gold in a personal-best of 1:55.28 in the 800 meters.

on this date – August 19, 2017

On this date:

In A.D. 14, Caesar Augustus, Rome’s first emperor, died at age 76 after a reign lasting four decades; he was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius.

In 1812, the USS Constitution defeated the British frigate HMS Guerriere off Nova Scotia during the War of 1812, earning the nickname “Old Ironsides.

In 1814, during the War of 1812, British forces landed at Benedict, Maryland, with the objective of capturing Washington D.C.

In 1918, “Yip! Yip! Yaphank,” a musical revue by Irving Berlin featuring Army recruits from Camp Upton in Yaphank, New York, opened on Broadway.

In 1934, a plebiscite in Germany approved the vesting of sole executive power in Adolf Hitler.

In 1936, the first of a series of show trials orchestrated by Soviet leader Josef Stalin began in Moscow as 16 defendants faced charges of conspiring against the government (all were convicted and executed).

In 1955, torrential rains caused by Hurricane Diane resulted in severe flooding in the northeastern U.S., claiming some 200 lives.

In 1964, The Beatles opened their first full-fledged U.S. tour as they performed at San Francisco’s Cow Palace.

In 1976, President Gerald R. Ford won the Republican presidential nomination at the party’s convention in Kansas City.

In 1980, 301 people aboard a Saudi Arabian L-1011 died as the jetliner made a fiery emergency return to the Riyadh airport.

In 1987, a gun collector ran through Hungerford, England, 60 miles west of London, killing 16 people, including his mother, before turning his gun on himself.

In 1991, Soviet hard-liners stunned the world by announcing that President Mikhail S. Gorbachev had been removed from power. (The coup attempt collapsed two days later.)

Ten years ago: Hurricane Dean, which had already killed eight people on its destructive march across the Caribbean, pummeled Jamaica with gusting winds and torrential rains as a Category 4 storm. French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner paid an unannounced and highly symbolic visit to Baghdad the first by a senior French official since the war started. Elvira Arellano (el-VEE’-ruh ah-ray-AH’-noh), an immigrant without legal status who’d taken refuge in a Chicago church to avoid being separated from her U.S. -born son, was deported to Mexico. (Arellano eventually made her way back to the U.S. and was paroled by immigration authorities in March 2014; her case remains under review.)

Five years ago: Missouri Congressman Todd Akin, the conservative Republican U.S. Senate candidate, said in an interview on KTVI-TV in St. Louis that it was “really rare” for women to become pregnant when they were raped. (Akin afterwards backed off his on-air comments, saying that he’d misspoken; Akin lost the November election to Democratic incumbent Claire McCaskill.) NATO said a man in an Afghan police uniform shot and killed an international service member, raising the death toll to 10 in such attacks in the space of just two weeks. Tony Scott, 68, director of such Hollywood hits as “Top Gun,” and “Days of Thunder,” jumped to his death from a suspension bridge over Los Angeles Harbor.

One year ago: The Obama administration defended its decision to make a $400 million cash delivery to Iran contingent on the release of American prisoners, saying the payment wasn’t ransom because the Islamic Republic would have soon recouped the money one way or another. Usain Bolt scored another sweep at the Rio Games, winning three gold medals in his third consecutive Olympics by turning a close 4×100 relay race against Japan and the United States into a typical, Bolt-like runaway, helping Jamaica cross the line in 37.27 seconds. Allyson Felix won an unprecedented fifth gold medal in women’s track and field, running the second leg of the 4×100-meter relay team. Actor Jack Riley, 80, died in Los Angeles.

On this date – August 18, 2017

On this date:

In 1838, the first marine expedition sponsored by the U.S. government set sail from Hampton Roads, Virginia; the crews traveled the southern Pacific Ocean, gathering scientific information.

In 1846, during the Mexican-American War, U.S. forces led by Gen. Stephen W. Kearny oc’cup’ied Santa Fe in present-day New Mexico.

In 1914, President Woodrow Wilson issued his Proclamation of Neutrality, aimed at keeping the United States out of World War I.

In 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing all American women’s right to vote, was ratified as Tennessee became the 36th state to approve it.

In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King dedicated the Thousand Islands Bridge connecting the United States and Canada.

In 1954, during the Eisenhower administration, Assistant Secretary of Labor James Ernest Wilkins became the first black official to attend a meeting of the president’s Cabinet as he sat in for Labor Secretary James P. Mitchell.

In 1963, James Meredith became the first black student to graduate from the University of Mississippi.

In 1969, the Woodstock Music and Art Fair in Bethel, New York, wound to a close after three nights with a mid-morning set by Jimi Hendrix.

In 1976, two U.S. Army officers were killed in Korea’s demilitarized zone as a group of North Korean soldiers wielding axes and metal pikes attacked U.S. and South Korean soldiers.

In 1983, Hurricane Alicia slammed into the Texas coast, leaving 21 dead and causing more than a billion dollars’ worth of damage. The Kansas City Royals defeated the New York Yankees, 5-4, in the completion of the “pine-tar” game in just 12 minutes.

In 1988, Vice President George H.W. Bush accepted the presidential nomination of the Republican National Convention in New Orleans.

In 1997, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the nation’s largest Lutheran body, voted for closer ties with three other major Protestant denominations: the Presbyterian Church (USA), the United Church of Christ and the Reformed Church in America.

Ten years ago: Alarmed tourists jammed Caribbean airports for flights out of Hurricane Dean’s path as the monster storm began sweeping past the Dominican Republic and Haiti. NASA, meanwhile, ordered space shuttle Endeavour back to Earth a day early out of fear Dean might disrupt flight operations. A seven-alarm fire ripped through an abandoned skyscraper next to ground zero in Lower Manhattan, killing two firefighters who responded to the blaze. Michael K. Deaver, a close adviser to President Ronald Reagan, died in Bethesda, Maryland, at age 69.

Five years ago: Tropical Storm Helene quickly weakened into a tropical depression after moving ashore on Mexico’s Gulf Coast. Diana Nyad launched her latest attempt to become the first person to swim from Cuba to Florida without a wetsuit or a shark cage (she ended her bid three days later). Singer Scott McKenzie, 73, who performed “San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair),” died in Los Angeles.

One year ago: For the first time since declaring his presidential run, Republican Donald Trump offered an apology to those who might have been hurt by his caustic comments, saying he regretted some of what he had said “in the heat of debate. Former NFL star Darren Sharper was sentenced by a federal judge in New Orleans to more than 18 years in prison for drugging women in order to rape them double the sentence recommended by prosecutors. At the Rio Games, Jamaica’s Usain Bolt completed an unprecedented third consecutive sweep of the 100- and 200-meter sprints. Retired Army Gen. John W. Vessey, former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, died in North Oaks, Minnesota, at age 94.

on this date – August 16, 2017

On this date:

In 1777, American forces won the Battle of Bennington in what was considered a turning point of the Revolutionary War.

In 1812, Detroit fell to British and Indian forces in the War of 1812.

In 1858, a telegraphed message from Britain’s Queen Victoria to President James Buchanan was transmitted over the recently laid trans-Atlantic cable.

In 1937, the American Federation of Radio Artists was chartered.

In 1948, baseball legend Babe Ruth died in New York at age 53.

In 1954, Sports Illustrated was first published by Time Inc.

In 1956, Adlai E. Stevenson was nominated for president at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

In 1967, Louis Armstrong recorded “What a Wonderful World” by Bob Thiele and George David Weiss for ABC Records.

In 1977, a judge in New York ruled that Renee Richards, a male-to-female transgender, had the right to compete in the U.S. Open without having to pass a sex chromosome test. (In the opening round of the Open, Richards lost to Virginia Wade in straight sets, 6-1, 6-4). The Debby Boone recording of “You Light Up My Life” by Joseph Brooks was released by Warner Bros. /Curb Records.

In 1987, 156 people were killed when Northwest Airlines Flight 255 crashed while trying to take off from Detroit; the sole survivor was 4-year-old Cecelia Cichan (SHEE’-an).

In 1987, people worldwide began a two-day celebration of the “harmonic convergence,” which heralded what believers called the start of a new, purer age of humankind.

In 1991, Pope John Paul II began the first-ever papal visit to Hungary.

Ten years ago: Jose Padilla (hoh-ZAY’ puh-DEE’-uh), a U.S. citizen held for 3½ years as an enemy combatant, was convicted in Miami of helping Islamic extremists and plotting overseas attacks. (Padilla, once accused of plotting with al-Qaida to detonate a radioactive “dirty bomb,” was later sentenced to 17 years and four months in prison on the unrelated terror support charges, but that sentence was later increased to 21 years.) A cave-in killed three rescuers in the Crandall Canyon Mine in Utah; the search for six trapped miners was later abandoned. Master jazz percussionist Max Roach died in New York at age 83.

Five years ago: Republican presidential contender Mitt Romney declared he had paid at least 13 percent of his income in federal taxes every year for the previous decade; President Barack Obama’s campaign shot back: “Prove it. A U.S. military helicopter crashed during a firefight with insurgents in southern Afghanistan, killing seven Americans and four Afghans. Ecuador decided to identify WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange as a refugee and give him asylum in its London embassy. Actor William Windom, 88, died in Woodacre, California.

One year ago: Democrat Kathleen Kane, Pennsylvania’s first elected female attorney general, announced her resignation a day after being convicted of abusing the powers of the state’s top law enforcement office to smear a rival and lying under oath to cover it up. (Kane, who was succeeded by Republican Bruce L. Castor Jr., was later sentenced to 10 to 23 months in jail, but remains free while she appeals.) Simone Biles captured her fourth gold of the Rio Games with an electric performance in the floor exercise. Political commentator and TV host John McLaughlin, 89, died in Washington, D.C.

On this date – August 11, 2017

On this date:

In 1860, the nation’s first successful silver mill began operation near Virginia City, Nevada.

In 1909, the steamship SS Arapahoe became the first ship in North America to issue an S.O.S. distress signal, off North Carolina’s Cape Hatteras.

In 1934, the first federal prisoners arrived at Alcatraz Island (a former military prison) in San Francisco Bay.

In 1942, during World War II, Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France, publicly declared that “the hour of liberation for France is the hour when Germany wins the war.

In 1954, a formal peace took hold in Indochina, ending more than seven years of fighting between the French and Communist Viet Minh.

In 1956, abstract painter Jackson Pollock, 44, died in an automobile accident on Long Island, New York.

In 1962, Andrian Nikolayev became the Soviet Union’s third cosmonaut in space as he was launched on a 94-hour flight.

In 1965, rioting and looting that claimed 34 lives broke out in the predominantly black Watts section of Los Angeles.

In 1975, the United States vetoed the proposed admission of North and South Vietnam to the United Nations, following the Security Council’s refusal to consider South Korea’s application.

In 1984, during a voice test for a paid political radio address, President Ronald Reagan joked that he had “signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes.

In 1992, the Mall of America, the nation’s largest shopping-entertainment center, opened in Bloomington, Minnesota.

In 2014, Academy Award-winning actor and comedian Robin Williams, 63, died in Tiburon, California, a suicide.

Ten years ago: President George W. Bush welcomed French President Nicolas Sarkozy to his family’s estate in Kennebunkport, Maine. Former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney won an easy and expected victory in a high-profile Iowa Republican Party Straw Poll. Funerals were held in Newark, New Jersey, for three college or college-bound students shot to death in a schoolyard. Big Ben’s bongs fell silent as workers began a month of maintenance work on the iconic London clock and its world-famous bell.

Five years ago: Republican presidential contender Mitt Romney announced his choice of Rep. Paul Ryan of Wisconsin to be his running mate. Usain Bolt capped his perfect London Olympics by leading Jamaica to victory in a world-record 36.84 seconds in the 4×100 meters. Allyson Felix won her third gold medal as the Americans rolled to an easy victory in the women’s 4×400 relay. The heavily favored U.S. women’s basketball team won a fifth straight gold medal with an 86-50 victory over France.

One year ago: The Obama administration said it had decided marijuana would remain on the list of most dangerous drugs, rebuffing growing support across the country for broad legalization, but said it would allow more research into its medical uses. Michael Phelps won his fourth gold medal of the Rio Olympics and 22nd overall with a victory in the 200-meter individual medley. Simone Manuel became the first African-American woman to win a gold medal in swimming with her win in the 100-meter freestyle, upsetting world-record holder Cate Campbell and tying with Penny Oleksiak of Canada. Simone Biles of the U.S. soared to the all-around title in women’s gymnastics.

On this date – August 7, 2017

On this date:

In 1782, Gen. George Washington created the Order of the Purple Heart, a decoration to recognize merit in enlisted men and noncommissioned officers.

In 1789, the U.S. Department of War was established by Congress.

In 1882, the famous feud between the Hatfields of West Virginia and the McCoys of Kentucky erupted into full-scale violence.

In 1927, the already opened Peace Bridge connecting Buffalo, New York, and Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada, was officially dedicated.

In 1947, the balsa wood raft Kon-Tiki, which carried a six-man crew 4,300 miles across the Pacific Ocean, crashed into a reef in a Polynesian archipelago; all six crew members reached land safely.

In 1957, Oliver Hardy (the heavier half of the Laurel and Hardy comedy team) died in North Hollywood, California, at age 65.

In 1959, the United States launched the Explorer 6 satellite, which sent back images of Earth.

In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, giving President Lyndon B. Johnson broad powers in dealing with reported North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. forces.

In 1974, French stuntman Philippe Petit (fee-LEEP’ peh-TEET’) repeatedly walked a tightrope strung between the twin towers of New York’s World Trade Center.

In 1989, a plane carrying U.S. Rep. Mickey Leland, D-Texas, and 14 others disappeared over Ethiopia. (The wreckage of the plane was found six days later; there were no survivors.)

In 1998, terrorist bombs at U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania killed 224 people, including 12 Americans.

In 2010, Elena Kagan was sworn in as the 112th justice and fourth woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.

Ten years ago: San Francisco’s Barry Bonds hit home run No. 756 to break Hank Aaron’s storied record with one out in the fifth inning of a game against the Washington Nationals, who ended up winning, 8-6.

Five years ago: Jared Lee Loughner agreed to spend the rest of his life in prison, accepting that he went on a deadly shooting rampage at an Arizona political gathering in 2011 and sparing the victims a lengthy, possibly traumatic death-penalty trial. Syrian President Bashar Assad made his first appearance on state TV in nearly three weeks. Aly Raisman became the first U.S. woman to win Olympic gold on floor, and picked up a bronze on balance beam on the final day of the gymnastics competition at the London Games. Movie critic Judith Crist, 90, died in New York.

One year ago: An accident on a 17-story waterslide at Schlitterbahn Waterpark in Kansas City, Kansas, claimed the life of a 10-year-old boy. Jim Furyk became the first golfer to shoot a 58 in PGA Tour history during the Travelers Championship in Connecticut with a 12-under 58 in the final round. (Furyk finished tied for fifth at 11 under, three strokes behind winner Russell Knox.) Ichiro Suzuki tripled off the wall for his 3,000th hit in the major leagues, becoming the 30th player to reach the milestone as the Miami Marlins beat the Colorado Rockies 10-7. At the Rio Games, British swimmer Adam Peaty cruised to victory in the 100-meter breaststroke with a world record time of 57.13 seconds. Sweden’s Sarah Sjostrom also turned in a world-record performance in the 100 butterfly, touching in 55.48. Katie Ledecky of the U.S. crushed her own world record in the 400 freestyle with a time of 3:56.46.

On this date – August 4, 2017 – ht ap

A look at what happened on this date – information compiled by the ap and upi. ___
per the ap:
On this date:

In 1782, composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart married Constanze Weber at St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna.

In 1790, the U.S. Coast Guard had its beginnings as President George Washington signed a measure authorizing a group of revenue cutters to enforce tariff and trade laws and prevent smuggling.

In 1792, English romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was born at Field Place near Horsham, England.

In 1830, plans for the city of Chicago were laid out.

In 1914, Britain declared war on Germany for invading Belgium; the United States proclaimed its neutrality in the mushrooming world conflict.

In 1936, Jesse Owens of the U.S. won the second of his four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics as he prevailed in the long jump over German Luz Long, who was the first to congratulate him.

In 1942, the Irving Berlin musical “Holiday Inn,” starring Bing Crosby, Fred Astaire and Marjorie Reynolds, and featuring the song “White Christmas,” premiered in New York.

In 1944, 15-year-old diarist Anne Frank was arrested with her sister, parents and four others by the Gestapo after hiding for two years inside a building in Amsterdam. (Anne and her sister, Margot, died at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.)

In 1964, the bodies of missing civil rights workers Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman and James Chaney were found buried in an earthen dam in Mississippi.

In 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed a measure establishing the Department of Energy.

In 1987, the Federal Communications Commission voted 4-0 to abolish the Fairness Doctrine, which required radio and television stations to present balanced coverage of controversial issues.

In 1991, the Greek luxury liner Oceanos sank in heavy seas off South Africa’s southeast coast; the 402 passengers and 179 crew members all survived, largely through the efforts of ship’s entertainers who oversaw rescue operations. (Capt. Yiannis Avranas and other officers faced criticism for leaving the ship while some passengers were still on board.)

Ten years ago: President George W. Bush toured the site of a collapsed highway bridge in Minneapolis, pledging to cut red tape that could delay rebuilding. Three students, Iofemi Hightower, Terrance Aeriel and Dashon Harvey, were shot to death execution-style in a Newark, New Jersey, schoolyard. (Six people have since been sentenced to long prison terms.) NASA launched the Phoenix Mars Lander, a robotic dirt and ice digger, toward the red planet (it arrived in May 2008). Barry Bonds tied Hank Aaron’s 755 career home runs as his San Francisco Giants lost 3-2
to the San Diego Padres. Alex Rodriguez became at age 32 the youngest player in major league history to date to hit 500 home runs with a first-inning homer in a 16-8 Yankees victory over Kansas City.

Five years ago: Michael Phelps won the 18th Olympic gold medal of his career as the United States won the medley relay at the London Games. The United States set a world record to win the women’s medley relay. Serena Williams beat Maria Sharapova 6-0, 6-1 to join Steffi Graf as the only women to complete the Golden Slam winning the Olympics and the four majors. Three British athletes won gold medals in Olympic Stadium: Jessica Ennis in heptathlon; Greg Rutherford in men’s long jump; and Mo Farah in the men’s 10,000 meters.

One year ago: Speaking to reporters at the Pentagon, President Barack Obama vigorously denied that a $400 million cash payment to Iran was ransom to secure the release of four Americans jailed in Tehran. During a practice session on the eve of the Rio Olympics, South Korean gymnast Lee Eun-ju took a smiling selfie with North Korean gymnast Hong Un Jong in a warmly received scene captured by journalists.
On August 4, 1957, the Everly Brothers introduced their upcoming single “Wake Up Little Susie” on the “Ed Sullivan Show. The song created a controversy, and some radio stations banned it.

In 1975, Led Zeppelin vocalist Robert Plant and his family were seriously injured in a car accident while vacationing. The accident forced the band to postpone its U.S. tour.

In 1980, John Lennon and Yoko Ono began work on the album “Double Fantasy. It ended up being Lennon’s last studio effort. He was shot to death later that year.

In 1987, the soundtrack to “Dirty Dancing” was released.

In 1992, drummer Jeff Porcaro of Toto died suddenly of heart disease. He was 38.

In 1995, the Notorious B.I.G. and Faith Evans were married. They had met two weeks earlier. ___ per the upi:
In 1735, the standard of truth as a defense against a claim of libel was established in the American colonies when John Peter Zenger, publisher of a New York City newspaper, was acquitted of libel charges. In 1892, Andrew and Abby Borden, the elderly parents of Lizzie Borden, were found hacked to death with a hatchet. Lizzie Borden was acquitted of the murders at trial. In 1914, Britain declared war on Germany. The United States initially declared itself neutral in World War I. In 1944, acting on a tip from a Dutch informer, the Nazi Gestapo captured 15-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family in a sealed-off area of an Amsterdam, Netherlands, warehouse. In 1949, an estimated 6,000 people were killed and about 20,000 injured in an earthquake that destroyed dozens of towns in Ecuador. In 1958, Billboard magazine introduced its Hot 100 chart, covering the 100 most popular pop singles in the country. The first No. 1 was Ricky Nelson’s Poor Little Fool. In 1964, the remains of three slain civil rights workers, whose disappearance on June 21 garnered national attention, were found buried in an earthen dam near Philadelphia, Miss. In 1972, Arthur Bremer was found guilty of severely injuring Alabama Gov. George Wallace, who was campaigning for president. Bremer was sentenced to 63 years in prison. In 1984, the African Republic of Upper Volta changed its named to Burkina Faso, which means the land of upright men. In 2007, Barry Bonds of the San Francisco Giants hit his 755th career home run, tying Hank Aaron’s all-time major league record. He broke the record three days later and finished the season at 762 home runs. His achievements were clouded by accusations of using performance-enhancing substances. In 2010, a U.S. federal judge struck down the voter-approved same-sex marriage ban in California, calling the law discriminating and unconstitutional. In 2012, authorities in Gambat, Pakistan, suspended several police officers who forced a couple accused of adultery to walk naked through the town. Video footage of the incident stirred a public outcry. In 2014, James Brady, the White House press secretary who was paralyzed by a gunshot in an assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan and became a leading gun-control advocate, died in Alexandria, Va.; he was 73. Brady’s death was ruled a homicide, resulting from the 1981 shootings, which also wounded the president and two other men.